In connection with acute environmental issues over the last decade, many projects have been issued, the essence of which was to reduce the impact of industrial enterprises on the environment. After all, it depends on how clean the drainage, its condition depends.
The cleaning system can include industrial drainage of various objects. That is, with the provision of utilities and under a preliminary agreement with enterprises, sewage can be merged into an existing shared canal channel, organized centrally and territorially located in a nearby village. But for this, it is obligatory after sampling, the composition of the sewage water of the enterprises must meet the permissible degree of contamination. If this conformity is not revealed, then pre-treatment of such wastewater is carried out with the help of special installations in order to reduce the degree of contamination.

Requirements for the main indicators of the composition of industrial runoff for a common sewage system

The company's drainage system, if hazardous substances are present in its composition, can affect the condition of the pipes in the sewage canal and even the city's treatment plant. If substances with a maximum permissible concentration exceed the norm, they can cause damage both to the water bodies themselves and to people using water from it. To avoid this, before cleaning, take samples of sewage to check the compliance of their composition with the norms. The work of factory facilities should be organized so that water is reused, thereby reducing the amount of production waste.
The conditions for the normalized composition of the gutter are provided for when carrying out design and installation works or for the reconstruction of absolutely all industrial enterprises without exception.
The normalized composition of drainage connections for draining into a common centralized sewage canal should have the following characteristics:
  • In the drains there should be no clogging and insoluble impurities, aggressive chemical compounds, sediment materials, explosive components, poisonous and viral-bacterial components;
  • The permissible value of BOD 20 in the design of a sewage treatment plant should exceed the corresponding indicator of the enterprise;
  • BOD 5 should exceed COD by 2.5 times;
  • The temperature should not be higher than 400 ° C;
  • PH level in the range from 6.5 to 9 units;
Due to the drainage, there should be no malfunctions and downtime in the sewerage network and cleaning station.
If there is a discrepancy with the composition norms, the wastewater is subjected to preliminary cleaning. The effluent from the galvanic cells, due to the hazardous nature of their waste, undergoes such purification by means of specialized installations that are installed by the relevant organization in consultation with the local authorities.

Harmful factors affecting the pollution of the drainage system

The application of methods for cleaning industrial effluents, taking into account the composition of the drainage in its original form, contribute to the removal of components affecting the environment. It is also necessary to control the water parameters.
The following harmful groups are classified:
  • Emulsion substances;
  • Oil components;
  • Coarse and micro dispersion particles;
  • Coarsely dispersed suspensions;
  • Chromium in the third and fourth valencies;
  • Colloidal compounds;
  • Salts, sulphates, chlorides;
  • Cyanides;
  • Phenols;
  • Impurities of heavy metals;
  • Surfactants;
Organic matter.
To neutralize and remove these substances, various cleaning methods are used: filtration, various types of flotation, separation, sieving, oxidation, sedimentation, flocculation, deep cleaning systems, etc.

Main types of drains

Industrial pollution of sewage is divided into the following types:
  • Thermal;
  • Mechanical;
  • Radioactive;
  • Chemical and biological;
The composition of its pollutant capacity, which has its own characteristics for various industries, may contain such impurities:
Organic origin;
Inorganic type;
A set of organic and inorganic types.
Various types of pollution of organic nature that affect the reduction of oxygen content are usually found in run-off from the oil industry and processing organics of plants.
Gutters of enterprises that use heavy metals, alkaline and acid compounds in their work, can have many inorganic impurities.
The third type of contamination is present in the waste galvano waste processing industries.
Ways of sewage treatment in industry
The drainage of industrial enterprises can be cleaned in the classical way in three ways:
By modifying the chemical constituents of the compounds.
Neutralization of mixed compounds, without resorting to a change in their chemical constituents.
The result of the first method of cleaning depends on a number of criteria:
  • Structural composition of impurities;
  • Presence of toxic compounds;
  • Level of activity of the medium;
  • Presence of biogen