Wastewater is a water resource that is polluted by precipitation, waste from industrial plants and waste from consumed human products. Each of the ecological concepts has its own classification.

Classification of wastewater pollution types

Water is polluted by liquid, solid, gaseous substances that damage human health. Potential pollutants are divided into several groups:
1. Household. To this group include the waste of daily use rights.
2. Industrial. Pollutants of this group are discharged as a result of technological processes, which are carried out at industrial enterprises. These include chemical and toxic additives used in industrial plants.
3. Atmospheric pollutants of sewage. To such group it is necessary to carry polluters of water resources: melted and rain waters, the rests of fuel, storm sewerage.
When drinking water in food and with its daily use, it must be cleaned of harmful substances that pose a danger to the human body. To maintain your health, it is important to use these methods of cleaning:
1. Chemical process of cleaning. This purification of water will destroy toxic and inorganic substances from the water resource.
2. Mechanical purification annihilates the content of mechanical impurities.
3. The physicochemical and biological cleaning process promotes the maximum destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in water drains, for example: algae.
Each of us knows that it is impossible to remove all harmful substances from the water at one time, however, if you try out an integrated cleaning system, the effect will be much more significant. Each of the listed methods has its positive or negative side of functionality, therefore it is recommended to conduct complete disinfection of water to fix the cleaning of drains. Very often, the method of disinfection is resorted to by the addition of high-concentration chlorine. However, water disinfection can be carried out using ozonization and treatment with bactericidal rays. It is worth taking a close look at this process. If you neglect the cleaning of sewage, you can become the owner of deadly diseases and end life with a lethal outcome.

Effective methods for cleaning water resources and their effect

Harmful substances contained in water resources significantly affect the smell and taste of water, which is not difficult to notice when it is used. In order to get rid of such physical properties, people resort to various methods. So effective are cleaning methods:
1. Chemical. When this kind of cleaning is activated, specialized reagents are thrown into the water source, which react chemically with contaminated water, causing the process of precipitation of substances polluting the drains, after which the harmful elements precipitate. The result of this cleaning is the removal of more than 90% of insoluble and 25% of soluble impurities.
2. Mechanical cleaning of waste water is achieved by straining and flotation of water. These processes remove solid impurities from the water source. The filtration process is carried out thanks to specialized gratings, sieves and oil traps. Often, starting the process of water purification, use the above method, since it removes large-dispersed harmful elements from the source, and then goes to the stage of dry cleaning. According to statistics, mechanical cleaning eliminates 70% of insoluble particles in domestic use, and from the production percentage of insoluble substances is equal to 95%.
3. Physicochemical purification of water effectively removes small substances of organic and inorganic origin. To achieve physical and chemical cleaning processes are used:
• erosion;
• sorption;
• associations;
• ion exchange method and electrolysis.
This method has a lot of advantages (a set of cleaning methods). It promotes:
1. To remove toxic and biological parts with a volume of more than 10 μm.
2. Automation of treatment facilities.
3. Clean up the water in depth.
Electrolysis is a process related to physico-chemical purification, it helps destroy organic substances and remove substances such as metals and acids. This method of cleaning is relevant for enterprises that work with lead and copper materials. Most often this applies to the paint and varnish industry.
Coagulation is the process of sewage purification, where particles stick together, and as a result of their accumulation an aggregate is formed. Coagulation is used to quickly and efficiently precipitate emulsified material.
Flocculation is considered a subset of coagulation. With this method, special substances are added to the water, which help the formation of settling elements - loose flakes. Flocculation is different from coagulation only in that flakes are knocked down, regardless of whether contact with the particles has been made. Coagulants include: starch and dextrin.
4. Cleaning of biological substances plays a significant role, since it is based on several methods simultaneously: biochemical and physiological. Biological purification of water occurs due to methane reactors, aerotanks, biofilters, biological ponds. Also for the effect of intense biological oxidation, a bacterial film layer is used, in which large particles do not have the ability to leave the filter.
Aerotank is a tank used for water purification, which occurs due to active sludge. This substance contains microorganisms and bacteria. To achieve effective cleaning of effluents, it is necessary to provide activated sludge, to give elements of oxygen and air flow, due to these factors, the bacteria acquire the form of large flakes, which secrete enzymes and mineralize. So flakes in polluted water contribute to sedimentation of silt to the bottom, for the complete cancellation of bacterial substances in the water resource it is necessary to add amoebas and infusoria. So it looks like a full-fledged picture of biological cleaning of waste resources.

Main stages of water treatment

Polluted waters pass through the main three stages, regardless of the method of purification of the water resource.
1. The primary stage - its task is to select solid particles and impurities.
2. Secondary treatment contains the process of filtration and aeration.
3. The tertiary stage is considered the most expensive, therefore, in order to save money, the wastewater is purified by the first two stages.
So for the rational cleaning of water, it is necessary to first identify the environment of harmful substances and take into account the requirements for the process of water purification. The task of each method is to maximally realize the purified water resource in any branch of human life and minimize pollution of the environment.